Python爬虫必备:从0到1构建自己的免费爬虫代理IP池(Python零基础入门到爬虫实战)

Python爬虫必备:从0到1构建自己的免费爬虫代理IP池(Python零基础入门到爬虫实战)

为什么要使用代理IP在爬虫的过程中,很多网站会采取反爬虫技术,其中最经常使用的就是限制一个IP的访问次数。当你本地的IP地址被该网站封禁后,可能就需要换一个代理来爬虫。其中有很多网站提供免费的代理IP(如}

Python爬虫必备:从0到1构建自己的免费爬虫代理IP池(Python零基础入门到爬虫实战)

开发思路1、通过本地IP抓取第一批启动代理IP

Python爬虫必备:从0到1构建自己的免费爬虫代理IP池(Python零基础入门到爬虫实战)

我们从代理IP网站抓取代理IP的过程本身就是爬虫,如果短时间内请求次数过多会被网站禁止访问,因此我们需要利用本地IP去抓取第一批代理IP,然后使用代理IP去抓取新的代理IP。

2、对第一批启动的代理IP验证有效性后存入数据库

我们在数据库IP.db下建了两个表:proxy_ip_table(存储所有抓取的IP,用于查看抓取IP功能是否正常)和validation_ip_table(存储所有通过验证的IP,用于查看IP有效性)

第一步中获取的代理IP经检验后存入validation_ip_table,检验的实现如下:

def ip_validation(self, ip): #判断是否高匿:非高匿的ip仍会出卖你的真实ip anonymity_flag = False if \”高匿\” in str(ip): anonymity_flag = True IP = str(ip[0]) + \”:\” + str(ip[1]);IP url = \”}

我们构建了待访问的网址列表(暂定100个容易跑完):

self.URLs = [ \”}

构造随机请求头,用于模拟不同的网络浏览器,调用方式:

from RandomHeaders import FakeHeaders#返回请求xici代理网站的请求头xici_headers = FakeHeaders().random_headers_for_xici2、DatabaseTable.py

提供数据库的创建表和增删查功能,调用方式:

from DatabaseTable import IPPooltablename = \”proxy_ip_table\”#tablename也可以是validation_ip_tableIPPool(tablename).create() #创建表IPPool(tablename).select(random_flag = False)# random_flag = True时返回一条随机记录,否则返回全部记录IPPool(table_name).delete(delete_all = True) #删除全部记录3、GetProxyIP.py

核心代码,有几个函数可以实现不同的功能:

从0开始完成建表、抓取IP和存入数据库的功能from GetProxyIP import CarwlCrawl().original_run()当代理IP个数不够的时候,根据url_list列表进行抓取,将合适的IP存入列表from GetProxyIP import Carwl#其他提供代理IP的网站url_kuaidaili = [\”}

当IP池太久没用时,需要对IP有效性进行验证,不符合要求的IP需要删除from GetProxyIP import CarwlCrawl().proxy_ip_validation()

部分代码完整代码请查看我的github主页:}

1、RandomHeaders.py

提供随机请求头,模仿浏览器访问以应付反爬

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-\”\”\”Created on Tue Jan 29 10:36:28 2019@author: YANG功能:生成随机请求头,模拟不同的浏览器访问\”\”\”import randomfrom fake_useragent import UserAgentclass FakeHeaders(object): \”\”\” 生成随机请求头 \”\”\” def __init__(self): self.__UA = [ \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Maxthon 2.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0;\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1) Gecko/20070803 Firefox/1.5.0.12\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/536.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/20.0.1132.11 TaoBrowser/2.0 Safari/536.11\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; The World)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/64.0.3282.140 Safari/537.36 Edge/17.17134\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Avant Browser)\”, \”Opera/9.27 (Windows NT 5.2; U; zh-cn)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0)\”, \”Opera/9.80 (Windows NT 5.1; U; zh-cn) Presto/2.9.168 Version/11.50\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Maxthon/4.9.2.1000 Chrome/39.0.2146.0Safari/537.36\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/50.0.2661.87 Safari/537.36\”, \”Opera/9.80 (Windows NT 6.1; U; en) Presto/2.8.131 Version/11.11\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0; SLCC2; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; Media Center PC 6.0; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/47.0.2526.106 BIDUBrowser/8.3 Safari/537.36\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; ) Opera/UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 6.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.1; en-us) AppleWebKit/534.50 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1 Safari/534.50\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; SV1; QQDownload 732; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; 360SE)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/45.0.2454.101 Safari/537.36\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; rv:46.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/46.0\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/534.57.2 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1.7 Safari/534.57.2\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/42.0.2311.154 Safari/537.36 LBBROWSER\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/21.0.1180.89 Safari/537.1\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1; rv:5.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/5.0\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/46.0.2486.0 Safari/537.36 Edge/13.10586\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/6.0)\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0)\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; TencentTraveler 4.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/50.0.2661.87 Safari/537.36 OPR/37.0.2178.32\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; Trident/7.0; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; InfoPath.3; rv:11.0) like Gecko\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0; SLCC2; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; Media Center PC 6.0; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; LBBROWSER)\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1)\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1)\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.0; Trident/4.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1) AppleWebKit/535.11 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/17.0.963.84 Safari/535.11 SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; 360SE)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/5.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/47.0.2526.80 Safari/537.36 Core/1.47.277.400 QQBrowser/9.4.7658.400\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; rv:2.0.1) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0.1\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/48.0.2564.116 UBrowser/5.6.12150.8 Safari/537.36\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1) Gecko/20070309 Firefox/2.0.0.3\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Trident/4.0; SV1; QQDownload 732; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; SE 2.X MetaSr 1.0)\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 12.0\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.2) Gecko/2008070208 Firefox/3.0.1\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.2) AppleWebKit/534.30 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/12.0.742.122 Safari/534.30\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/67.0.3396.99 Safari/537.36\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; Trident/7.0; Touch; .NET4.0C; .NET4.0E; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; .NET CLR 3.0.30729; .NET CLR 3.5.30729; Tablet PC 2.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/21.0.1180.71 Safari/537.1 LBBROWSER\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64; rv:38.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/38.0\”, \”Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.1; WOW64; Trident/4.0)\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1; rv:44.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/44.0\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/48.0.2564.116 Safari/537.36 TheWorld 7\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; rv,2.0.1) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0.1\”, \”Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/38.0.2125.122 Safari/537.36 SE2.X MetaSr 1.0\”, ] #UserAgent用户代理,主要提供浏览器类型及版本、操作系统及版本和浏览器内核等信息 def random_headers_for_xici(self): headers = { \”User-Agent\”: UserAgent().random, ##随机选择UA \”Accept-Language\”: \”zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en-US;q=0.8,en;q=0.7\”, \”Accept\”:\”text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8\”, \”Accept-Encoding\”:\”gzip, deflate, br\”, \”Cache-Control\”:\”max-age=0\”, \”Connection\”:\”keep-alive\”, \”Host\”:\”\”: \”}

提供数据库功能,这里提供了能存储IP的数据库IP.db。

import sqlite3 ##可以在 Python 程序中使用 SQLite 数据库import timeclass IPPool(object): ##存储ip的数据库,包括两张表ip_table和all_ip_table ##insert和建表语句绑定在一起 def __init__(self,table_name): self.__table_name = table_name self.__database_name = \”IP.db\” ##IPPool对应的数据库为IP.db ##初始化类,传入参数table_name def create(self): conn = sqlite3.connect(self.__database_name, isolation_level = None) conn.execute( \”create table if not exists %s(IP CHAR(20) UNIQUE, PORT INTEGER, ADDRESS CHAR(50), TYPE CHAR(50), PROTOCOL CHAR(50))\” % self.__table_name) print(\”IP.db数据库下%s表建表成功\” % self.__table_name) ##建表语句 def insert(self, ip): conn = sqlite3.connect(self.__database_name, isolation_level = None) #isolation_level是事务隔离级别,默认是需要自己commit才能修改数据库,置为None则自动每次修改都提交 for one in ip: conn.execute( \”insert or ignore into %s(IP, PORT, ADDRESS, TYPE, PROTOCOL) values (?,?,?,?,?)\” % (self.__table_name), (one[0], one[1], one[2], one[3], one[4])) conn.commit() #提交insert 但是已经设置isolaion_level为None,所以应该不需要 conn.close() def select(self,random_flag = False): conn = sqlite3.connect(self.__database_name,isolation_level = None) ##连接数据库 cur=conn.cursor() #cursor用于接受返回的结果 if random_flag: cur.execute( \”select * from %s order by random() limit 1\” % self.__table_name) result = cur.fetchone() #如果是random_flag为T则随机抽取一条记录并返回 else: cur.execute(\”select * from %s\” % self.__table_name) result = cur.fetchall() cur.close() conn.close() return result def delete(self, IP = (\’1\’,1,\’1\’,\’1\’,\’1\’), delete_all=False): conn = sqlite3.connect(self.__database_name,isolation_level = None) if not delete_all: n = conn.execute(\”delete from %s where IP=?\” % self.__table_name, (IP[0],)) #逗号不能省,元组元素只有一个的时候一定要加 print(\”删除了\”,n.rowcount,\”行记录\”) else: n = conn.execute(\”delete from %s\” % self.__table_name) print(\”删除了全部记录,共\”,n.rowcount,\”行\”) conn.close() 问题&改进从代理IP网站抓取代理IP本质上也是爬虫,代理IP网站也设置了反爬机制,大概在xici获取4000个代理IP左右就会被封IP,从而需要使用代理来获取代理IP。和网上的经验不同,xici网前100页的代理IP可用率还是比较高的,基本上有九成。但是可能会有\”检验有效的代理IP不一定能用\”和\”第一次检验失效的代理IP可能以后能用\”的问题,这也是我将代理IP和有效的代理IP分别存储在两张表的原因。使用代理IP时,构建成}

未经允许不得转载:搜热门主机 » Python爬虫必备:从0到1构建自己的免费爬虫代理IP池(Python零基础入门到爬虫实战)

赞 (0)

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /www/wwwroot/srmzj.com/wp-includes/class-wp-comment-query.php on line 405